Mitsraym | Crucibles of Oppression
During the exodus Moseh | Moses led the Children of Yisra’el out of Mitsraym | the Crucibles of Oppression and to the Promised Land. Their Divinely aided journey from bondage to freedom illustrates Yahowah’s role in delivering His Covenant family from the caldrons of religious and political subjugation. It is the path our Heavenly Father established for us to follow Him home.
By considering what God revealed in the Towrah’s presentation of the central story of Shemowth | Names, we come to understand the nature of the political and religious schemes – past and present – from which we are all being rescued. And we can appreciate the process Yahowah delineated to redeem us. Without this understanding, the conflict between man’s way and Yahowah’s solution remains muddled by 3,500 years of religious corruption.
The story of our liberation from man opens with…
“These (‘eleh – [wa is omitted in 4QpaleoGen-Exod]) are (hayah) the personal and proper names (shem) of the children (beny – of the sons) of Yisra’el (Yisra’el – from ‘ysh sarah and ‘el, individuals who strive and struggle with the Almighty and those who engage and endure with God) who arrived in (ha bow’ – who came to) Mitsraym | the Crucibles of Political and Religious Oppression (Mitsraym – the cauldrons of coercion and cruelty in Egypt where people are confined and restricted by religious and 2political institutions; plural of matsowr – to be delineated as a foe and besieged during a time of testing and tribulation, from tsuwr – to be bound and confined by an adversary, besieged, assaulted, shut up, and enclosed in a concentration camp by those showing great hostility, and metsar – to be aware of a state of troubling hardship during imposition of anguishing distress) with (‘eth) Ya’aqob (Ya’aqob – My Footsteps as a result of Me Grabbing the Heel, commonly transliterated Jacob; from y – I and ‘aqab – to receive the reward and suffer the consequences of circumventing or overreaching, digging in or supplanting one’s heels, often walking in a sly, accusative, and insidious manner), their father (‘ab hem – [included in 4QpaleoGen-Exod]), each individual (‘ysh – person or man) and his household (wa beyth huw’ – family) included (bow’ – coming and arriving):…” (Shemowth / Names / Exodus 1:1)
Names, the personal and proper designations of people and places, even God, are essential elements in Yahowah’s Towrah | Teaching. Few are as relevant as Yisra’el. The name which embodies God’s People has both positive and negative connotations because the Children of Yisra’el would go full tilt in both directions. Derived from ‘ysh, sarah, and ‘el, it can depict “individuals who strive and struggle against the Almighty” or “those who engage and endure with God.” Yisra’elites personify both extremes, often in the same individual.
The name set between ‘ysh | individual people and ‘el | Almighty God is Sarah, ‘Abraham’s wife and the mother of the Covenant’s first child: ‘Yitschaq – I Laugh.” In many ways she represents the women of Yisra’el. Having endured great suffering under the influence of her husband, she was ultimately rewarded by God, proving that we can laugh along with Him and prevail.
Speaking of names, the plural of shem is unusual. It is one of the few masculine nouns with an irregular “ot” 3ending rather than “ym.” My theory is that this means that there is only one true name for Yahowah and Yisra’el.
While entirely derogatory, Mitsraym oozes with meaning. It is an especially important and revealing word because it defines the place from which Yahowah liberated His people. Mitsraym is the plural of “matsowr – to consider the consequences of a crucible of oppression in which people are delineated as foes, besieged, subjugated, confined and restricted by man’s religious and political institutions.” Matsowr is a compound of “ma – to ponder the implications of something” and “tsuwr – to be bound and confined by an adversary, besieged, assaulted, shut up, abused, and enclosed by being restricted in a concentration camp by those showing great hostility.”
Having been led away from this oppressive and debilitating situation, this impoverishing and confining condition, by Yahowah through the Towrah, Yisra’el has endured the same and worse for most of its existence. The failure to trust Yahowah with their liberation, indeed salvation, and to rely upon themselves, has led to a long litany of subjugation and oppression by many of man’s most ruthless and repulsive political and religious regimes. These include Mitsraym again, then Assyria, Babylon, Persia, Greece, Rome, Roman Catholicism, Islam, and the Nazis throughout Europe.
All the while, Yahowah remains consistent and vigilant, calling His People out of a world tormented by religion and politics. God wants the Children of Yisra’el to come home. And the means to their liberation remains the same: through His Towrah | Guidance and its Miqra’ey | Invitations to be Called Out and Meet. The destination is also unchanged: the Beryth | Covenant Family.
To simply change the Hebrew name for the place to the name the Greeks applied to it nearly a thousand years thereafter, “Egypt,” is disrespectful to God while depriving 4readers of information essential to their understanding. There are very few messages in the Towrah as vital as Yahowah’s role in liberating His people from the Caldrons of Religious and Political Oppression.
Ya’aqob was the second son of Yitschaq and the grandson of ‘Abraham and Sarah. His life was, as his name implies, filled with rewards and consequences. After successfully wrestling with, striving and contending against, the Adversary, Yahowah renamed Ya’aqob Yisra’el – yet another name laden with rich connotations.
Ya’aqob is one of the Towrah’s most challenging names to properly define. As a compound of y, the pronoun “I and me,” and ‘aqab, it could be nothing more than “My Footsteps as a result of Me Grabbing the Heel” something Ya’aqob did as he tried to supplant his brother’s birthright.
As we contemplate the full array of meanings ascribed to ‘aqab we find that it means: “to receive the reward or suffer the consequences of circumventing or overreaching, digging in or supplanting one’s heels, often walking in a sly, accusative, and insidious manner.” It not only provides a picture of Ya’aqob’s life, but it is also a portrait of what Yisra’el would become.
The phrase, “their father,” is missing from the Masoretic Text, and thus from all English translations. It is found, however, in one of the nearly complete paleo-Hebrew manuscripts of Shemowth / Exodus found in Qumran. Of the eight Dead Sea Scrolls written in Ancient or Paleo-Hebrew, all but one (Yowb / Job, which precedes the story of ‘Abraham chronologically) is from the Towrah. The reason for the Masoretes’ omission from the text is relevant is because the story of Ya’aqob and the Children of Yisra’el is designed to demonstrate our Heavenly Father’s desire to build a family.
Beyth | Home and Family is central to the Towrah. It is the basis of Beryth | Covenant – the Family and Home of 5God and His children. It is Yahowah’s purpose in creating us, our purpose in life, and the purpose of God authoring His Towrah | Teaching and Guidance. When we understand the Towrah as Yahowah’s invitation to become part of His Family and live in His Home, we have obtained the proper perspective.
The prelude to our redemption continues with this list of names, ostensibly because the meaning of the names, and the fact that they are not listed in the order of their birth, was intended to convey a message…
“Ra’uwben (Ra’uwben – from ra’ah and ben: see and perceive, look upon and behold, considering the son who is an observant prophet and witness),
Shim’own (Shim’own – from shama’: listen to and hear everything which is associated with him),
Lowy (Lowy – from lowah: – to be united with and joined unto),
Yahuwdah (Yahuwdah – from: Yahowah and yadah – hand of Yah, beloved of Yah, related to Yah, to acknowledge and appreciate Yah, and to know and understand Yah), (Shemowth / Names 1:2)
Issachar (Ysaskar – from nasa’ and sakar: to lift up and support the reward, paying the fee to carry away and provide safe passage),
Zebulun (Zabuwluwn – from zabal: live abundantly and dwell exaltedly in the majestic and lofty abode),
Benyamyn (Benyamyn – from ben and yamyn: the son at the right side and hand, choosing to be son who is right or a child of the sea), (Shemowth / Names 1:3)
Dan (Dan – from dyn: to execute good judgment or to be contentious, vindicate or quarrel)
Naphtaly (Naphtaly – from pathal and y: I go forward striving alongside or I twist and distort, also perhaps from: 6naphal: I struggle and fall),
Gad (Gad – from gad and guwd: to fortuitously gather together in abundance with good fortune expressed in joy or to be overcome by invading troops), and (wa)
‘Asher (‘Asher – from ‘asher: revealing the way to the benefits of the relationship and being led along the narrow path to get the most out of life).” (Shemowth / Names / Exodus 1:4)
As a family, the message becomes:
Perceive and consider the son who is an observant prophet and witness. Listen to everything associated with him to become united with those who acknowledge and appreciate Yah, joining the beloved of Yah to become related to Yah as a reward. Let Him pay the price to carry you away, providing safe passage to live an abundant life in the majestic and lofty abode at the right side, having chosen to identify with the son who is correct. Exercise good judgment to be vindicated rather than be contentious. Strive forward and alongside rather than struggling amidst that which is twisted and distorted. Fortuitously gather together in the abundance of good fortune by being led along the path to the benefits of the relationship.
It’s little wonder the second book of the Towrah was designated Shemowth | Names. Fortunately for us, we took the time to consider them.
“And (wa) all (kol) of the souls (nepesh – individual consciousnesses) who came to exist (hayah) out of (yatsa’ – brought forth from) the loins (yarek – the genitals and procreative influence) of Ya’aqob (Ya’aqob – My Footsteps as a result of Me Grabbing the Heel, commonly transliterated Jacob; from y – I and ‘aqab – to receive the reward and suffer the consequences of circumventing or overreaching, digging in or supplanting one’s heels, often walking in a sly, accusative, and insidious manner) were 7seventy-five (chamesh wa shib’iym – 75 [from 4QpaleoGen-Exod / 70 in the Masoretic Text]) souls (nepesh – individual people with consciousness) because (wa) Yowseph (Yowseph – Yahowah adds to and increases those who make the proper connections and join together with Him) was in (hayah ba) Mitsraym | the Crucibles of Political and Religious Oppression (Mitsraym – the cauldrons of coercions and cruelty in Egypt where people are confined and restricted by religious and political institutions; plural of matsowr – to be delineated as a foe and besieged during a time of testing and tribulation, from tsuwr – to be bound and confined by an adversary, besieged, assaulted, shut up, and enclosed in a concentration camp by those showing great hostility, and metsar – to be aware of a state of troubling hardship during imposition of anguishing distress).” (Shemowth / Names / Exodus 1:5)
Yahowah’s focus is always on souls, which is why nepesh was used twice in this accounting of liberating souls from religious and political oppression. In this regard, there is another aspect of tsuwr that I neglected to share previously in connection with Mitsraym. Tsuwr is used to define the Time of Ya’aqob’s Tsuwr | Troubles during the final three to seven years before Yahowah’s return with His son, the Mashyach | Messiah Dowd. Once again, Yisra’el will find Yahowah liberating His People from the consequence of religious and political oppression.
The number 75 was obtained from 4Exod and 4QpaleoGen-Exod among the Dead Sea Scrolls found in Qumran. While 75 is also confirmed in the Septuagint, almost every English translation reads “seventy” many years after that number was shown to be erroneous. It is from the Septuagint that Luke derived the larger number, which is only interesting because atheists and Islamic apologists present the difference between the number in the Masoretic Text and the New Testament as proof that the 8“Bible is errant.” They have not bothered to correct their accusations, either.
This is my eighth rewrite of Yada Yahowah. The motivation each time was to correct what I had written based upon what I had learned over the course of twenty years of studying Yahowah’s testimony. It is the responsible and honorable thing to do – a lesson lost on the Jews and Muslims who have not corrected their renderings of this passage and the atheists and Muslims who have not abated their criticisms.
In case you are checking, there is some dispute over the phrase, “because Yowseph was in Egypt.” It was omitted from 4QExod and the LXX, but the citation of Shemowth / Exodus 1:5 on 4QpaleoGen-Exod and 4QGen-Exod among the Qumran scrolls includes it. It isn’t actually needed because Yowseph’s | Joseph’s struggles and triumphs in Egypt are regaled throughout the final one-third of Bare’syth / Genesis, beginning with the 37th chapter and continuing through the end of the book with Ya’aqob’s and Yowseph’s death in Bare’syth 50. Since the Towrah was conceived as a cohesive whole, should it have been intended, it was simply an affirmation.
We did not consider Yowseph’s life in the first three volumes of Yada Yahowah. While historically and culturally interesting, his life was not germane to the story of redemption memorialized in the Exodus. Nonetheless, since God documented it for a reason, here is a brief history of his life. As the account unfolds, God is shown being compassionate toward Rachel (meaning compassionate lamb). Responding to her request, He “opens (patah – frees and releases) her womb,” enabling her to give birth to Yowseph. He became Ya’aqob’s most beloved son, causing his brothers to become jealous. Their scheme to do away with him led to Yowseph being sold as a slave to a group of Midianite caravanners en route to Egypt. To hide their crime, the brothers dipped Yowseph’s “coat of many 9colors in goat’s blood” to fool their father, Ya’aqob, into thinking his son had been killed.
At seventeen, Yowseph became a slave in the home of the commander of Pharaoh’s guard. There, Potiphar’s wife made amorous advances toward him which, when he rebuffed, prompted her to level false accusations of sexual harassment. Yowseph was sent off to prison. While in an Egyptian jail, Yowseph befriended two fellow prisoners: the Pharaoh’s cupbearer and the royal baker. Ultimately, he would predict their futures by interpreting their dreams.
When the cupbearer was released and returned to duty, he overheard Pharaoh complain that no one understood his dream. The servant told the king about the Hebrew prisoner who predicted his release. Yowseph was then called to the palace where he promptly told Pharaoh that his vision of seven fat cows coming out of the Nile being eaten by seven lean cows, who also emerge from the river, along with the seven good and then seven bad heads of grain, is an indication that the annual rise of the Nile would bring seven bumper crops followed by seven years where crops would not grow. Impressed, Pharaoh appointed Yowseph vizier of Egypt. He married Asenath, the daughter of the High Priest, and had two sons, Manashah and ‘Ephraym.
As the de facto leader of what the Egyptians called “the Black Land,” and with foreknowledge of what would occur, Yowseph instituted agrarian reform, whereby the nation’s feudal system was replaced by collectivization, making land and food the property of the state. A central administration was established and grain was both collected and doled out. As a result of the role he played saving the Egyptian people, Yowseph became powerful and rich, ultimately building a palace for his family in Avaris – the future capital of Goshen.
The story ends with Yowseph’s brothers, along with their families and livestock, heading to the Nile Delta as 10the result of a regional climate-induced famine. While they were allowed to settle in Goshen, Ya’aqob’s other sons don’t recognize the brother they had sold into slavery twenty-two years prior. Initially, Yowseph held them accountable for their crime, but ultimately forgave them, reuniting father and son. Both passed away soon thereafter, with Yowseph asking that his mummified body be carried back to the Promised Land when the Yisra’elites returned.
It should be noted that virtually every aspect of this account, right down to the coat of many colors, the massive agrarian reforms, Egypt’s ensuing rise in prominence, and even the foundations of Yowseph’s home, have been confirmed by archeological digs conducted over the past twenty years. For those seeking confirmation of the Towrah’s validity, the evidence is ubiquitous and irrefutable.
This evidence is presented in David Rohl’s A Test of Time, which also attests that Yowseph’s arrival in Egypt can be dated to 1693 BCE – toward the end of the 12th Dynasty. He was promoted to regent by Amenemhat III, circa 1670 BCE. Amenemhat, named after the sun god, Amen, was the most powerful pharaoh of the Middle Kingdom. Yowseph’s role as vizier continued through much of the 13th Dynasty. The years of famine and plenty that he predicted based upon the pharaoh’s dream are memorialized at the Semna Gorge. There, high-water marks denoting seven years of nearly perfect conditions are followed by markings which confirm seven years of devastating floods (nearly 30 feet above the normal annual rise). These ancient flood designations can be calibrated to 1663 BCE.
As the Yatsa’ | Exodus story continues to unfold, another king pretending to be god arose. He did not know Yowseph personally, and he had no appreciation for the role Yowseph played in saving the Egyptian people from what would have been a disastrous and prolonged famine. 11Pharaoh Neferhotep I considered the prosperous, and now very numerous, Hebrew population to be a threat and he did what clerics and kings have done throughout the ages: he oppressed, pillaged, enslaved, and murdered them. And as has been the case with clerics and kings for almost all of human history, his abusive actions were motivated by envy – a growing lust for money and power.
Neferhotep I was born into a military family in Thebes. He ruled along with his brother, Sobekhotep IV, further north in Amenemhat in the Nile Delta not far from modern Cairo. The most revealing depiction of him is found on a relief in the Phoenician city of Byblos.
“Then (wa) the Children of Yisra’el (Beny Yisra’el – from ben ‘ysh sarah and ‘el, sons who strive and struggle with the Almighty and children who engage and endure with God) were fruitful (parah – flourishing and proliferating), multiplying and becoming innumerable (wa sharats – teeming in abundance), exceptionally influential and accomplished (wa rabah wa ‘atsam – so vast they were perceived as a threat), to an exponential extent (ba me’od me’od – extending themselves many hundreds of times over) such that the region (wa ha ‘erets) was filled with them (male’ ‘eth hem). (1:7)
A previously unknown (chadash – new or restored) king (melek – royal ruler who serves as dictator over a kingdom) rose up and took a stand (quwm – arose and was established) over (‘al) Mitsraym | the Crucibles of Political and Religious Oppression (Mitsraym – the cauldrons of coercions and cruelty in Egypt where people are confined and restricted by religious and political institutions; plural of matsowr – to be delineated as a foe and besieged during a time of testing and tribulation, from tsuwr – to be bound and confined by an adversary, besieged, assaulted, shut up, and enclosed in a concentration camp by those showing great hostility, and metsar – to be aware of a state of troubling hardship during 12the imposition of anguishing distress) who did not know (‘asher lo’ yada’) Yowseph (Yowseph – Yahowah adds to and increases those who make the proper connections and join together with Him). (1:8)
He said (wa ‘amar) to his people (‘el ‘am huw’ – to his nation), “Behold (hineh – look now and see) the sons (ben) of Yisra’el (Yisra’el – those who strive and struggle along with the Almighty and those who engage and endure with God) have obtained a high status and are numerous (rab – great and extensive, widespread and abundant, controlling and manipulating) and they are too powerful a multitude (wa ‘atsuwm – too strong and accomplished, too vast in numbers and too influential) for us (min ‘anachnuw).” (Shemowth / Names / Exodus 1:9)
It was not the first, nor would it be the last time the oppressive sting of religious, political, and economic oppression has been justified through jealousy and fear. Once empowered, Muhammad said the same thing, and he reacted the same way – enslaving, killing, raping, and robbing every Jew within his grasp. The moment he rose to power, Hitler said that Jews were the problem, that they had become too powerful, and that they had allied with the enemy. So, the author of the “Volks | People’s” religion enslaved and robbed millions of Jews throughout Europe. All three men, including Pharaoh, justified degrading, oppressing, and enslaving, even murdering Jews en masse, by suggesting that they were “elitists, too influential, too rich, too numerous, too powerful, and too manipulating” for us to endure. It has become the most pervasive and destructive conspiracy ever foisted on anyone.
Man covets power and power corrupts. It is the sum and substance of all “poligious” (political and religious) doctrines. Humankind has been plagued by a countless variety of such schemes, all conceived for the enrichment and empowerment of clerics and kings to the detriment of all others.
13Melek, meaning “king,” is indistinguishable in the text from Molek – the false god of the Ammonites. You’ll find him depicted in Qara’ / Leviticus 18:21, 20:2-5, Melek / 1 Kings 11:7, Melek / 2 Kings 23:10, and Yirma’yah / Jeremiah 32:35. This association is important because, for most of our history, regardless of the realm or religion, egomaniacal individuals have announced that they were god, or at the very least, god’s authorized representative. Pharaoh, as the human incarnation of the sun, was no exception. Throughout time, such kingdoms have served as the private estates of potentates. Their subjects live and die at their whim. The people they suppress become their possessions. Such was the state of Europe when it was controlled by Imperial Rome and then the Roman Church.
Such men are never satisfied. They are never secure, always craving more. They are willing to assemble armies and taskmasters to steal what belongs to others. They erect monuments to their insecurities. They oppress and suppress thousands and sometimes millions to establish their superiority. They kill to impose their will over others.
In this review of the connection between politics and religion, please note that the primary meaning of rab, in Shemowth / Names / Exodus 1:9, is “great in power, authority, influence, or imposition.” It is the basis of the word rabbi. That alone should be sufficient to expose the nature of their religion and their motives.
Seventy years after Yowseph’s death, Neferhotep I, whose name ironically means “beautiful or perfect peace,” said to those who lived in the Black Land:
“Come now, let’s take action (yahab – let’s choose to put in place a plan which permits us) to deal shrewdly (hakam – showing ourselves to be wise, skillful, and deceptive in teaching a lesson) with regard to them (la huw’ – concerning them), lest (pen – otherwise, apprehensively we will have to worry about the alternative) 14they increase in power and influence (rabah).
Then what if (wa ky) it comes to be (hayah) that we are called to (qara’ – we are summoned and encounter) fight a war (milchamah – to battle, engaging in combat) and in addition (wa gam – also beyond this) they join forces so as to increase the presence of (yasaph huw’ ‘al) those who hate us (sane’ ‘anachnuw – our enemies who despise us), such that they fight against us (wa lacham ba ‘anachnuw – attack us and overpower us), and then (wa – in addition) withdraw (‘alah – go away) from the land (min ha ‘erets)?” (Shemowth / Names / Exodus 1:10)
Perhaps if he could have added another hypothetical to the mix he could have created a fearsome bogeyman. Fearmongering and unrealistic projections are often used to justify unjust actions. Neferhotep was lying, and he knew it, not unlike George W. Bush’s errant justifications for his invasion of Afghanistan and the Iraqi war.
Yahowah presented this historical review so that we might appreciate the desperate and delusional nature of the religious and political aspirants from whom He is saving us. Far too many beguiling clerics and kings have made such statements.
“Therefore (wa), they placed (sym – appointed and set) over them (‘al hem) political and military officials (sar – commanders, soldiers, and nobility), madmen who imposed forced labor (mas – insane and irrational individuals possessed by evil spirits as taskmasters over them, making them vassal slaves on behalf of a lord, compelling serfdom under the control of the government), for the purpose of (la ma’an) oppressing and subjugating them (‘anah hem – mistreating and denigrating them, making their lives miserable through humiliating affliction as their response) with (ba) difficult work (siblowt – compulsory service, bearing burdens against their will).” (Shemowth / Names / Exodus 1:11)
15The seven-step plan Yahowah provided for us, the path which leads from human oppression to the Promised Land, is free. All you have to do is come to know Him, choose to trust Him, and then rely on His path home. Unlike forced labor and compulsory service, the choice is ours to make. Unlike bearing our own burdens, and those of others, God removes them all. He did the work. He performed the service. He bore the burdens, so we might be set free.
Oppression and subjugation are the antitheses of freedom and freewill. They are, therefore, mankind’s greatest foe. They serve to keep people from knowing Yahowah, from choosing to trust and rely upon Him, from being free to live eternally with Him. And since love requires choice, oppression, which suppresses freewill, is especially vulgar to God.
Throughout human history, there have only been two entities capable of oppression and subjugation: political regimes and religious schemes. While militaries are the means of oppression, and political and religious officials are the implements, they are merely tools wielded by political despots and religious clerics.
Therefore, when we discover that people have been “oppressed and subjugated” we know that religion and politics are to blame. And all too often, as was the case with Mitsraym then and now, religion and politics are inseparable. Such has been the case throughout most of human history.
Speaking of Mitsraym, by His depiction of what was imposed upon His People, our definition of this place as the Crucibles of Religious and Political Oppression seems an adroit fit. While obvious from the etymology, it is now affirmed through context. This leads us to the conclusion that Yahowah freed the Children of Yisra’el, and us by extension, from man’s political and religious schemes.
16Under man’s political and religious yoke…
“They built (banah – they constructed and established) on behalf of (la) Pharaoh (Phar’oah – Egyptian for “Great House”) cities and shrines (‘iyr – population centers and temples), warehouses (miskanowt – storage buildings for grain, precious metals, and weapons) near (‘eth – in relation to) Pithom (Pithom – Egyptian for Temple of Atum) and in association with (wa ‘eth) Ra’mases (Ra’mases – Egyptian for Child of the Sun).” (Shemowth / Names / Exodus 1:11)
A scant 3,400 years before archeologists unearthed the Rosetta Stone and deciphered Egyptian Hieroglyphics, Moseh was able to phonetically transliterate the title of Mitsraym’s supreme leader. If academics were entirely rational, they would have credited the Towrah rather than the Stone.
It is interesting to note that ‘iyr, rendered “cities and shrines,” also conveys “anguish, anxiety, wrath, anger, and terror.” One man does not terrorize or oppress hundreds of thousands on his own. As was the case in Nazi Germany, the imposition of widespread oppression and subjugation requires the presence of a popular political and religious agenda.
Pithom, or Per-Atum in Egyptian, meaning the “Temple of Atum,” has been identified with the Tel el-Maskhuta site near the Wadi Tumilat along the lower Nile. Ramesses has recently been identified with the Tell ed-Daba in the northeastern Nile Delta, also in the area known as Goshen. The city known as Riamasesa in Cuneiform, and in its full Egyptian form as Pr-R’msswmry-Imn, or “the house of Ramesses, the beloved of Amun, the victorious and powerful,” was the royal residence of the Ramesside Pharaohs. This identification caused early Egyptologists to suggest that Ramesses the Great (II) was the Pharaoh of the Exodus, but that is not true.
17The Towrah sets Yowseph’s arrival in “Egypt” around the late 17th century BCE. The seven years of poor harvests that he predicted are consistent with the date of confirmed cycles of excessive Nile flooding. The Exodus itself, marking the end of the Yisra’elite sojourn, occurred 480 years prior to the 968 BCE anointing of Dowd as the Messiah, and therefore beginning on Passover in 1448 BCE.
A word of caution, however, is in order before we proceed. Even the most universally sanctified dating systems are based upon assumptions and conjectures, and they often include elements of circular reasoning. Kings have egos and they tend to exaggerate everything, including the length of their reigns. And during this time there were no independent journalists or historians. Additionally, Yahowah established His own internal calendar, one that marks time from Creation to the Garden and then from the Garden to our return to ‘Eden. We humans use a calendar the Roman Church adopted from the Roman Empire, which borrowed it from the Greeks, who dumbed down the calendar developed from the Babylonians, who took theirs from ancient Sumer. Most any attempt to reconcile them is fraught with peril. Therefore, please take these attempts to provide specific dates with some skepticism.
In this regard, I have a word of advice. Even when it comes to dating Yahowah’s Miqra’ey | Invitations to be Called Out and Meet with God, precise dating is not possible. And the reason is simple: Yahowah wants us to prioritize understanding and acceptance over timing and performance.
These things known, using the orthodox Egyptian chronology, Ramesses I ruled for one year beginning in 1295 BCE. Ramesses II, known as “the Great,” reigned sixty-six years, from 1279 to 1213 BCE. Ramesses III did not sit on the throne until 1184 BCE, and relinquished 18power thirty-one years later in 1153 BCE. Therefore, to make Ramesses the villain, theologians must discard the chronology depicted in the Towrah and move the Exodus to around 1250 BCE. But when this is done, there is no longer a correlation between the archeological data being unearthed in Egypt and Israel and the Towrah’s presentation of the Exodus and entry into the Promised Land.
Rather than admit the flaws in their reasoning, theological seminaries assume that the historicity of “the Old Testament” is a myth. According to them, Yisra’elites were never enslaved in Egypt. And that being the case, they were not freed by God on Passover, thereby eliminating any reason to venerate the “Jewish Holidays.” If they are right, nothing God said should be trusted.
The archaeological dig at Tell ed-Daba has unearthed a town “near and in relation to Ra’meses” which can be synchronized with the Towrah’s timeline. It is actually buried underneath it – just as the Aztec capital, Tenochtitlan, lies beneath Mexico City.
The original name for the city was Avaris. Archeologists have found evidence of a large, enslaved Hebrew population, as well as the storehouses they built. The construction described in Shemowth / Exodus 1:11 began around 1530 BCE and was abandoned suddenly in 1447 BCE. The pharaohs of this period were: Neferhotep I, Sihathor, Sobekhotep IV, Sobekhotep V, Iayib, Ay, Sobekhotep VI, Sankhrenesewadjtu, Ined, Hori, Sobekhotep VII, and finally Dudimose, whose troubled reign began in 1448 BCE. Perhaps the seminaries should revise their textbooks.
Throughout time, there are countless situations where oppressed people became stronger. Moreover, the more abusive a regime becomes, the more they have to be wary of retribution. Their victims, with little to lose, lash back at 19their tormentors.
“But (wa) as is the nature of (ka ‘asher – accordingly, as is the way with) oppression and subjugation (‘anah – mistreating and denigrating people, making their lives miserable through humiliating affliction), this (‘et) actually made them (ken hem – [the Yisra’elites (plural “them” throughout in the DSS and singular in the MT]) much stronger and more numerous (ken rabah me’od – [from 2QExod | the MT has spread out]).
So then (wa) they began to detest and fear (quwts – they (the leaders and people of Mitsraym) were disgusted and started to loathe, abhor, and dread) the very presence (min paneh – the faces) of the Children (beny – sons) of Yisra’el (Yisra’el – Individuals who Engage and Endure with God).” (Shemowth / Names / Exodus 1:12)
The idea of the Israelites “spreading out,” found in almost all English translations, is based upon their preference for the Masoretic Text over the Dead Sea Scrolls. Even when a 1300-year-older witness to the text is published, they resist making corrections because it invalidates the notion of inerrancy.
To appreciate the story of liberation being portrayed throughout the Towrah, we must understand the conditions from which God’s People were being rescued. Most ancient empires were built by slaves, including Sumer, Babylon, Assyria, Egypt, China, Sparta, Greece, Rome, the Mayans, Aztecs, and Incas. The Islamic conquests of much of the known world were fueled by the slave trade. Roman Catholicism was the catalyst behind the feudal system of serfdom throughout Europe. Even the American south grew to some degree by the sweat of slaves. So the message is, mankind can involuntarily serve cleric, king, and nobleman, or we can choose to have God serve us.
“And (wa) the Children of Yisra’el (Beny Yisra’el) 20worked (‘abad – labored) for Mitsraym | the Crucibles of Oppression (‘eth Mitsraym) under a ruthless and brutal tyranny (ba perek – in a state rife with callous backbreaking violence and cruelty). (1:13)
He anguished and embittered their lives (marar ‘eth chay hem – he (Pharaoh) inflicted great suffering on them) through abusive and cruel (qaseh – harsh and hard, physically difficult) slave labor (‘abodah – effort in servitude) churning clay, mortar, and mud (chomer – mire and dirt) into sun-dried bricks (wa ba lebenah), in addition to all kinds (wa ba kol) of laborious tasks (‘abodah – work as slaves) in the open fields (ba ha sadeh – in the cultivated areas and pastures).
With all (‘eth kol) their work (‘abodah hem) which (‘asher) they labored (‘abad – they served as slaves) they treated them ruthlessly (ba hem perek – they were brutal and cruel toward them).” (Shemowth / Names / Exodus 1:14)
The larger and more intrusive the government, the more abusive it becomes and the less freedom people have over their lives and careers. We see this in every socialist, communist, and fascist (Islamic fiefdoms) nation today. The more liberal the government, the fewer liberties enjoyed by the people. Throughout history, this has also been manifested within every civilization. It gets back to gang mentality: the larger the gang the more degenerate its mentality.
Socialist Secular Humanists have been advancing the notion that a reduction in population would be good for our planet. They also prefer the nationalization of workers. Pharaoh, however, beat them to it. Working the Hebrew population to death served as a harbinger of what the National Socialist German Workers’ Party did to Jews in their Concentration Camps.
After demanding that the Hebrew midwives murder 21every male child, and failing to elicit their support, hear this from the tyrant and wannabe god…
“Then Pharaoh (wa Phar’oah) instructed (tsawah – issued a direction in the form of a command to) all of his people (kol ‘am huw’ – to his entire nation), announcing (la ’amar), ‘Everyone (kol – the totality) of the sons (ha ben – of the male children) who are born (ha yilowd) throw him (shalak huw’ – hurl him) into the River (ya’or – the Nile), letting all of the daughters (wa ha bath) live (chayah).” (Shemowth / Names / Exodus 1:22)
The name of this anti-Semitic Pharaoh was Khanefer Ra Sobekhotep IV. According to Egyptologists, Khanefer Ra means: “the Appearance of the Perfection of Ra.” Ra was one of many names ascribed to the sun.
The initial element in his cartouche (skhm in Egyptian and thus similar to the Hebrew shem | name) was a sun disk, symbolic of his god and the extent of his reach and influence. The second symbol was that of a home, in that the title Pharaoh means “Great House.” The third symbol was an arm and hand, the ancient world’s most universal symbol for “power and control.” The fourth and final element was comprised of what can be described as a Christian cross sitting atop a human lung. This pagan symbol spoke of the soul and life.
Phonetically, the cartouche conveys the consonant sounds nfr, which can be vocalized as “beautiful, good, and perfect.” However, with regard to a pagan deity, it wouldn’t be a stretch to assume that the lung, or breath, represents our nepesh / soul, just as it does in Hebrew. Therefore, the message in the name might well be: Ra, the sun god, no matter where you are, has the power to control your soul.
Sobek was the name of the god of the Nile, represented by a crocodile. It means “at peace or is satiated.” That is to say, the Nile flooding which had led to the years of famine 22Yowseph had predicted was now over.
This draconian pharaoh, the twenty-third king of the 13th Dynasty, reigned in the Second Intermediate Period. His rule is dated from 1529 to 1510 BCE in what is referred to as the New Egyptian Chronology. He was the pharaoh of Moseh’s birth, the man who demanded that the sons of the Hebrews must all be killed. The people of the Black Land would come to regret that decision.
It was into this horrid situation of man’s making that Yahowah intervened to guide the hand of a compassionate woman. The child who would help rescue His people would be a Lowy | Uniter, now known as a Levite. Casting a Lowy | Levite into the role of liberator was brilliant because their primary purpose would be to serve God’s family during the seven Miqra’ey | Called-Out Assembly Meetings. It would foretell the journey from the oppressive realm of man to complete freedom within Yahowah’s family.
“Now (wa) a man (‘ysh) from (min) the household (beyth – family) of Lowy (Lowy – one who unites (often transliterated “Levite”)) went (halak – walked and proceeded) to obtain (laqach – to select and accept) a Lowy (Lowy) woman (‘eth bath).” (Shemowth / Names / Exodus 2:1)
They married, and when her son was born, the mother hid him from the Egyptians, knowing that they had been ordered to kill Hebrew boys. However, by the time he was three months old, he had grown too large to conceal.
“When (wa) she was unable to conceal him any longer (lo’ yakol ‘owd tsaphan huw’), she obtained for him (laqach la huw’) a papyrus vessel (tebah gome’ hy’ – a boat of reeds) and waterproofed it (wa chamar – coated and sealed it) with tar (ba ha chemar – with bitumen) and with pitch (wa ba ha zepheth – with resin).
23She placed (wa sym – she put) within it (ba hy’ ‘eth) her child (yeled hy’ – her baby boy). Then she set it (wa sym) within the reeds (ba ha suwph – in the water plants) on the edge (‘al saphah – upon the shore) of the River (ha ye’or).” (Shemowth / Names / Exodus 2:3)
The baby ark was symbolic of the vessel which had been used to save Noach and his family. The same coating that was applied to the Ark also served as a metaphor for us, signifying the role our Spiritual Mother plays in our perfection.
The infant liberator was placed into the river just as Pharaoh’s daughter was approaching to bathe.
“Now (wa) Pharaoh’s daughter (Phar’oah’s bath) descended (yarad – came down) to bathe (la rachats – to wash) at the River (‘al ha ye’or) while her maidservants (wa na’arah hy’ – female attendants) walked at her hand (halak ‘al yad) by the River (ha ye’or). Then she saw (wa ra’ah) the papyrus vessel (tebah gome’ – a boat of reeds) in the midst of (ba tawek) the reeds (ha suwph), and she sent (shalach – she dispatched) one of her female servants (‘eth ‘amah hy’ – a handmaid of hers) and she grasped hold of it (wa laqach hy’).” (Shemowth / Names / Exodus 2:5)
In that it has become a major stumbling block for many people, let’s pause a moment to examine suwph because it is also the name of the sea Yahowah would eventually part on behalf of this boy and his kin. As a verb, suwph is rendered “to cease, consume, or to come to an end” on eight occurrences. Twice it is translated as “fulfilled or completed.” As a noun, suwph appears 28 times and is translated “red” on 24 of those occasions and as “reeds,” describing “water plants along the shore,” the remaining four. Red is preferred over reed because even these reeds were red.
Based upon its verbal root, suwph describes a place 24where the land ends and the sea begins. It is where Yahowah “suwph – fulfilled” His promise, saving the Yisra’elites while “suwph – consuming” the pursuing Egyptian army in the process. The 24 times suwph is translated “Red,” it serves as the proper name of the Red Sea – of which the Gulf of Aqaba (as it has been renamed) is part. This is affirmed in Melek / 1 Kings 9:26, which states: “King Solomon built a fleet of trading ships (‘any – ocean-going transport vessels) in (ba) Ezion Geber (‘Etsyown Geber – a town near the head of the Gulf of Aqaba) which is near (‘asher ’eth – associated with and close to) Elat (‘Eylat – a harbor town and seaport located at the northern end of the Gulf of Aqaba arm or the Red Sea) at (‘al – on) the bank (sapah – shoreline) of the Red (suwph) Sea (yam) in the region of Edom (‘Edowm – region south of the Dead Sea, north of the Red Sea, east of the Rift Valley, and west of the Negev (i.e., a desert area on the shores of the Gulf of Aqaba)).” Ignoring this, and as a result of translating suwph as “reeds” in this story, scholars have proposed that Yahowah’s mighty miracle was to part a marsh known as the Sea of Reeds.
Fully amplified, this next passage connects Moseh with Yahowsha’, and it defines the roles they would play during Passover.
“When (wa) she opened it (patah – responded, drawing it out) and saw (ra’ah) the child (yeled – the young boy), she noticed that the baby, like a lamb away from his flock, was crying (wa hineh na’ar bakah – behold, the boy, similar to a scattered sheep, was wailing).
Pharaoh’s daughter (bath Phar’oah – [from 4QExod]) showed mercy toward him (chamal ‘al huw’ – demonstrated kindness and took pity, demonstrating compassion because he was in a difficult situation). She said (‘amar), ‘This (zeh) baby boy (yeled) is from (min – part of) the ‘Ibry | Hebrews (ha ‘Ibry – Opposite Side; from ‘eber – Hebrews).” (Shemowth / Names / Exodus 2:6)
25‘Ibry is from “‘eber – opposite side,” which is in turn from “‘abar – to pass over,” the verb which serves as the basis of Pesach | Passover. The Hebrews were chosen to be God’s people, setting them in opposition to man’s world – especially his political and religious schemes.
Therefore, this “na’ar – lamb away from his flock” who as “bakah – emotionally distraught,” even “having difficulty breathing with convolutions of his diaphragm” in the context of someone “chamal – demonstrating mercy” on behalf of the ‘Ibry | Hebrews, provides a lovely portrait of ‘abar | passover.
The path to Passover continues with Moseh being adopted by the pharaoh’s daughter. And while the Towrah does not share the account of what happened next, a Jewish historian named Artapanus wrote: “Peri Ioudaion | Concerning the Jews” in Egypt during the late 3rd century BCE using no-longer-extant temple records and documents found in the Library of Alexandria. Artapanus spoke of the buildings constructed in Kessan, the Greek vocalization for the Hebrew Goshen, which we have already read about. He claimed that Mousos | Mosea became a very popular regional administrator on behalf of Pharaoh Khaneferre. Then Artapanus wrote that Mousos | Moses led a military campaign against the Ethiopians who had invaded Egypt, besieging the city of Hermopolis in a war which lasted ten years. There is independent archeological data corroborating this account, some of which is documented by David Rohl in his Test of Time.
Artapanus continued by saying that Pharaoh Khaneferre was so jealous of Mousos’ accomplishments and popularity that he tried to kill him, causing the future 26prophet and liberator to flee to Arabia, where he lived with Raguel, the king over the tribes in that region, ultimately marrying his daughter. While Raguel wanted his fellow Arabs to plunder Egypt, Moses restrained them out of concern for his Hebrew brethren, still enslaved in the Black Land. Artapanus tells us that Khaneferre died, and Mousos returned to face the new pharaoh. And at this point, the Towrah is more explicit than the historian.
“Now (wa) it came to be that (hayah) after many days (ba ha yowmym ha hem), when (wa) Moseh (Mosheh – One who Draws Out; from mashah – to draw out, transliterated Moses) had become great (gadal – had been reared and become exalted, obtaining a high status and state of honor), he went out (wa yatsa’) to (‘el) his brethren (‘ach huw’ – his brothers). And he observed (ra’ah ba – he looked upon, witnessed, and considered) the burden of their forced labor (siblowth hem – their hard and difficult compulsory work and heavy loads).
Then (wa) he witnessed (ra’ah – he saw) a Mitsry (Mitsry – singular of Mitsraym, an oppressive religious and political Egyptian) individual (‘ysh – man) striking and beating (nakah – afflicting and destroying, wounding to the point of death by way of repeated blows, slaughtering) an ‘Ibry | Hebrew man (‘Ibry ‘ysh – an individual on the other side; from ‘eber and ‘abar – that which is in opposition to passover), one of (min – from) his brothers (‘ach huw’ – brethren).” (Shemowth / Names / Exodus 2:11)
There is a time to kill. There are circumstances in which the most merciful thing is to take the life of another. The Egyptian taskmaster was an implement of a diabolical and deadly political and religious regime. Without cause, he was beating an innocent man to death. And there is little doubt that he had done the same thing yesterday and would do it again tomorrow if given the chance.
27This solitary event serves as a microcosm for the conquest of the Promised Land. Those who had become naturally cruel and abusive, even deadly, would have to be removed for God’s people to live.
That said, unless we are in the exact same situation, witnessing a brutal individual in the throes of beating a helpless and innocent family member to death, we ought not to respond in kind. Violence breeds more of the same. Words wielded wisely are almost always more effective than fists, bullets, or bombs.
In this specific case, in his righteous indignation, albeit cautiously…
“He turned this way and that (wa panah koh wa koh), and seeing no one (wa ra’ah ky ‘ayin ‘ysh), he struck and killed (wa nakah – he beat to death) the Mitsry (‘eth ha Mitsry – the oppressive religious and political Egyptian).
Then he concealed (wa taman – he buried, hiding from the light) him in the sand (huw’ ba ha chowl – within that which is insignificant, common, and ordinary, and thus profane, not set apart, and Godless).” (Shemowth / Names / Exodus 2:12)
Let’s be clear, Moseh was right only because there was no other option. Words would not have mattered. Cruel beatings would have continued. The Egyptians were absolutely and unequivocally wrong. And even then, Moseh suffered the consequence of standing up against a misguided culture.
“When he went out (wa yatsa’) the next day (ba ha yowm ha sheny), he beheld two Hebrews (wa hineh shanaym ‘ysh ‘Ibry) who were quarreling, who were fighting, afflicting and destroying one another, wounding each other to the point of death by way of repeated blows (natsah).
28And he said to the man in the wrong (wa ‘amar ba ha rasha’), ‘Why (la mah) are you choosing to make physical contact with, to strike and afflict (nakah – are you electing to wound and destroy, even willing to kill (hifil imperfect jussive)), your fellow countryman (rea’ ‘atah – your friend and companion)?’ (2:13)
He answered (‘amar), ‘Who set you in charge (my sym ‘atah ‘ysh sar – who placed you as the individual high-ranking official) and as a judge (wa shaphat – as someone who decides, choosing to convict or acquit) over us (‘al ‘anachnuw)?
Will you kill me (ha la harag ‘any) as it is said that you (‘atah ‘amar ka ‘asher) killed (harag) the Mitsry (‘eth ha Mitsry)?’
As a result (wa), Moseh (Mosheh – One who Draws Out; from mashah – to draw out) was concerned (yare’ – was afraid), and he said to himself (wa ‘amar), ‘Indeed (‘aken – unexpectedly but surely), this statement (ha dabar – this message and word) is known and accepted (yada’ – has been acknowledged).” (Shemowth / Names / Exodus 2:14)
We can move on, believing the myth that all is well that ends well. Or, alternatively, we can deal with the realization that this Hebrew’s response to someone trying to protect and save him, even encouraging him to think about what he was doing to harm his brother, has become a character flaw throughout the generations. Substitute Yahowah for Moseh, and Yisra’el for the man who, after afflicting his kin, rebuked the one trying to help him, and we can appreciate what God has endured from His people.
Yahowah has personally engaged to protect Yisra’el, to free His people and save them from those who would harm them. Then, after demonstrating His concern and compassion, after standing up for them, they have dismissed Him. He has asked those inflicting the deadliest 29religious and cultural blows upon their brethren to think about what they are doing throughout the Towrah and Prophets, and yet they are not listening. Instead, they have rejected Yahowah – His name, His authority, His Word, His concern, His mercy, and His offer to save them. They have put themselves in charge, with rabbis acting as judges, as the ones who decide the fate of Jews.
So, under these circumstances, especially among the religious, the question lingers: Will Yahowah walk away and allow them to die at their own hand and through the blows of others? Do you yada’?
Yahowah answered this question. Moseh walked away. He allowed his people to reject his compassion, his concern, and his willingness to protect them, even his attempt to get them to assess their situation and respond differently. He would leave them to suffer under the Mitsry | Oppressors another 40 years – the designated time of testing. It was only then, and only after all Yisra’el pleaded with God to save them, that, at Yahowah’s pleading, Moseh would return to save them. Yahowah provided them with answers and led them to the Promised Land.
But that was not the end of the story. Yahowah will make one final attempt to reconcile His relationship with His people, doing so on Yowm Kipurym in year 6000 Yah – sunset in Yaruwshalaim on October 2nd, 2033. And in advance of His return, He is still encouraging His people to think, providing them with all of the answers so that they would yada’ Yahowah.
As a reader, your natural inclination may be to move on, to read what comes next, without pausing long enough to let what Yahowah revealed resonate within your heart, mind, and soul. But please, it has been 3500 years since God shared this with us, hoping that we would ultimately come to terms with who He is, what He is offering, and what we have done to sweep it all aside. He has waited long 30enough. He deserves better.
Wars begin the same way. Rather than assess our personal culpability, we blame others.
The diabolically deadly and appallingly cruel implement of Pharaoh’s religious and political authority deserved to die. It had been an act of compassion and courage to intervene and stop the carnage, to provide a respite – even if only for one person at this moment in time.
The proper response was to free the slaves and to discipline those who had been abusing them. Instead, the leader of the people lashed out and tried to kill the lone moral individual in their midst. Such is the nature of man.
“When (wa) Pharaoh (Phar’oah) heard (shama’) what was said about this (‘eth ha dabar ha zeh), he sought to kill (wa baqas la harag – he searched for, trying to locate, so as to slay) Moseh (Mosheh – One who Draws Out; from mashah – to draw out).
But (wa) Moseh (Mosheh – One who Draws Out) fled, driven away (barach – escaped, as he was chased away), from the presence of Pharaoh (min paneh Phar’oah – from the appearance of the Great House).
He settled (wa yashab – he inhabited and remained, living) in the land of (ba ‘erets) the Midyan (Midyan – Contention and Strife, tribe living in northwestern Arabia). And he established a dwelling place (yashab – he lived) near a well (ba ha be’er).” (Shemowth / Names / Exodus 2:15)
The differences may be considerable, but compare America’s response to Edward Snowden. He showed uncommon courage and concern for his nation by exposing 31the intrusive, disingenuous, and abusive nature of the government harassing its own people. For his generosity, for his good judgment, for his heroism, the leaders of that government have labeled him a traitor and have caused him to flee for his life. It is the way we say, “Thank you!” to men of truth and valor.
Yisra’el has done the same to Dowd, and then to Yahowsha’. Perhaps it is time for a better-informed and more enlightened response.
The Midian king was accommodating, although Arabs would not remain so. Midyan means “contentious and quarrelsome,” which is what they would become 2000 years later under the influence of Muhammad, Allah, and Islam. But for now, it is sufficient to know that Moseh was in the land we call Saudi Arabia – the personal estate of the Saud warlords and their Wahhabi coconspirators.
The story continues by revealing that a Midian priest named, Ra’uw‘el, meaning “the Will of God,” had seven daughters, and that they had come to draw water at the same well for their father’s flock.
“The priest (wa la kohen – minister and cleric, royal advisor and one who performs religious rites in the pagan world) of Midyan | Contentious (Midyan – Combative and Belligerent Strife; from midcheh and madown – to harm another and bring them down by being a source of contention, misleading, and quarrelsome, a tribe living in northwestern Arabia) had seven (sheba’ – the numeral 7 and the essence of a promise) daughters (banowth – that which is associated with rebuilding and establishing; from the plural of bath – daughters, girls, and young women) who were shepherding sheep (ra’ah – leading and caring for sheep.
They came (wa bow’ – they arrived) and drew water from the well (dalah – to be saved, lifted from the depths, as a result of coming to comprehend and know) and filled 32(wa male’) the watering trough (‘eth ha rahat) to allow their father’s flock to drink (la shaqah tso’n ‘ab henah).” (Shemowth / Names / Exodus 2:16)
As is the nature of man, there would be some good kohen | priests who would serve to help the people appreciate Yahowah’ desire to liberate us from the hostile nature of men. But there would be many more, both clerics and royal advisors, who would perform religious rites to bind the people to the myths of pagan gods.
The overwhelming preponderance of clerics and kings would be “Midyan – a source of belligerent contention by deceptively misleading the people and bringing everyone down in the process.”
God never misses a chance to reinforce His message, and in this case, with sheba’ | seven. It is the “male’ – completion and fulfillment” of Yahowah’s “sheba’ – promise” to bring us together. Six, the number of man, with God, who is one, is sheba’ | seven. He would provide six steps through His Miqra’ey to lead us to the seventh, which is Sukah | Home.
Yahowah interacts with us like a shepherd cares for and leads his flock, like a Father fulfills the needs of His children. But not all shepherds are as caring. To protect us from them, Yahowah has provided a means to “yasha’ – deliver and save” His sheep.
“Then the shepherds (wa ha ra’ah – those who lead and graze sheep) came (bow’ – arrived) and drove them away (wa garash hem – expelled and removed them, banishing them and driving them away).
But (wa) Moseh (Mosheh – One who Draws Out) took a stand (quwm – he rose up, stood upright, and restored things to their prior state) and rescued them (yasha’ hem – he delivered and liberated them, thereby saving them), and gave their sheep a drink (shaqah ‘eth 33tso’n hem – watered their flock).” (Shemowth / Names / Exodus 2:17)
The first time yasha’ is associated with the story of the Exodus, we find the Great Liberator defining its primary meaning which is “to rescue and deliver,” not “to save.” In fact, salvation is a byproduct of Yahowah’s willingness to “yasha’ – liberate” His children, “freeing” us from the tyrannical nature of man.
This is vital to our understanding of the relationship Yahowah intends through His Covenant. As we should expect from a loving Father, salvation is not one of the benefits ascribed to accepting the conditions of the Covenant. Fathers protect their children, delivering them from harm’s way, liberating them to be all they can be. The role of a father is not to save his children.
Moseh demonstrated what few are willing to do today. He took a stand against the prevailing culture. In this case, he prevented stronger male shepherds from imposing their will and running off the physiologically weaker women. It was the second of many times that he would reveal his character.
Also, in both cases, Moseh risked his own life to intervene and protect others. He had nothing to gain other than to know that he had done the right thing.
In this regard, Moseh was like Dowd, demonstrating a characteristic Yahowah treasures. He respects men who have a strong backbone, who are willing to stand up and oppose the prevailing influence of man’s political and religious schemes. They would be the opposite of “meek” or “accommodating.” For far too long, Yisra’elites have tried to fit in rather than standing apart.
“When they came to (wa bow’ ‘el), Ra’uw‘el (Ra’uw‘el – the Will of God; from ra’uw and ‘el – the desire and will of the Almighty), their father (‘ab hem), 34he said (wa ‘amar), ‘Why is it that you have so frantically returned (maduwa’ mahar bow’ – what is the reason you have arrived so quickly and distressed) today (ha yowm)?’
They replied (wa ‘amar), ‘A Mitsry man (‘ysh Mitsry) delivered us, sparing us (natsal ‘anachnuw – defended us, saving us from harm’s way) away from the influence (min yad – from the hand) of the shepherds (ha ra’ah) and also (wa gam – then in addition) drew water for us such that we might understand (dalah dalah la ‘anachnuw – deliberately and demonstrably, with considerable determination, drew water from the well on our behalf, drawing near so that we would comprehend the realization that we had been saved from destruction (qal infinitive qal perfect)). Then (wa) he allowed the flock to drink (wa shaqah ‘eth ha tso’n).’” (Shemowth / Names / Exodus 2:19)
With the name Ra’uw‘el | the Will of God, we should see the seven daughters’ “‘ab – father” representing the will of our Heavenly Father. And through this story, Moseh represents the implement of Yahowah’s intent. The women were excited because they encountered an uncommon individual, someone who was willing to take a stand against unwarranted aggression. And in this case, by repeating dalah, we are being encouraged to consider its full implications. By protecting the women and nurturing the sheep, Moseh was demonstrating something we ought to understand, appreciating Yahowah’s desire to do the same for His flock. There is a lesson in every word and deed.
“Then he said (wa ‘amar) to his daughters (‘el banoth huw’), ‘So where is he (wa ‘ey huw’)? Why did you abandon this man (la mah zeh ‘azab ‘eth ha ‘ysh – for what reason did you leave, rejecting and forsaking, this man)? You should want to invite him (qara la huw’ – choose to call out to him and summon him, electing to 35reckon with him and meet with him (qal imperative)) because he will want to eat (wa ‘akal – because his desire is to taste (qal imperfect jussive)) leavened bread (lechem – ground and baked grain yeasted into a loaf; from lacham – to fight and battle to survive).’” (Shemowth / Names / Exodus 2:20)
Indeed, Yisra’el, where is He? Why have you abandoned and forsaken Him? He has done so much for you, and yet you have brushed Him aside.
Just as Yahowah is inviting Yisra’el into His Home through the Miqra’ey | Invitations to be Called Out and Meet, you should “qara’ – choose to welcome Him into your life, answering His summons to be called out.”
After delivering His people from the specter of death, it is Yahowah’s desire to consume the leaven in the bread of life, removing the fungus of religion and politics so that we might be free of it.
And should we choose to accept God’s offer, Yahowah will be as Moseh was…
“Moseh (Mosheh – One who Draws Out) was pleased to accept the invitation (ya’al – willingly demonstrated his resolve, showing that he was in complete agreement, determined to begin anew, totally content) to live with (la yashab ‘eth – to dwell and stay, establishing a home with) this individual (ha ‘ysh).
And he gave (wa nathan – he offered) his daughter (bath huw’) Tsiporah (Tsiporah – Early Bird) to Moseh (la Mosheh – One who Draws Out).” (Shemowth / Names / Exodus 2:21)
Without the intrigue of the palace politics and screams from the constant abuse of slaves, life would be more as God intended. Moseh was as happy as a lark with his early bird. Tsiporah would conceive…
And she gave birth to (wa yalad – having become 36pregnant, she conceived) a son (ben).”
To effectively serve with Yah, to liberate the Children of Yisra’el, bringing them home, Moseh would need to experience the joys and frustrations of being a father. Although there would be more to it than this because these were extraordinary circumstances. Yisra’el would be summoned out of the realm of human oppression on two occasions, the second in our immediate future.
Yisra’el, like Moseh, would pass through Arabia en route to the Promised Land. And while it would be a place of great enlightenment, these were not their people and this was not their home.
“He called him by the name (wa qara’ ‘eth shem huw’ – he invited him into his presence, designating and welcoming him by the name) Gerashom (Gerashom – To Take Out; from garash – to expel and drive out, taking away), because he said (ky ‘amar), ‘I am (hayah) an invited guest dwelling (ger – sojourning as foreigner with a different people in another place; from guwr – to abide, dwell, and stay, enjoying hospitality) in a different and distant realm with someone else, an observant and discerning foreigner who is not of the same ethnicity or geographic location and yet seems to understand this place (nakryah ‘erets – with Yah’s Nakry, someone from a place and culture that is not my own, speaking a different language, who, having paid attention, will comprehend; from nakar – an individual who, by being attentive and astute, will come to be acquainted, recognize, and acknowledge something which deserves our highest regard and respect in this realm and place (which is where the Towrah would be revealed)).’” (Shemowth / Names / Exodus 2:22)
Moseh | the One who Draws Out “qara’ – was called, indeed invited and summoned, now even read about and recited as having been announced and designated to call 37‘the Children of Yisra’el’ out” of Mitsraym by way of the Miqra’ey. Even his son’s name, Gerashom | To Take Out, proclaimed as much.
Ger would have been sufficient to explain Moseh’s current situation. He was “ger – an invited guest, dwelling as a foreigner, enjoying the hospitality of a different people and place.”
The introduction of Nakryah | Yah’s Nakry at this, the pivotal moment in the life of Yisra’el, at the moment Yahowah decided to rescue His People from the most foreign of lands, may serve as a foreshadowing of what is to come – a Second Exodus. It may be nothing more than Moseh bemoaning that he was a ger | foreigner living in a nakryah ‘erets – foreign place. But is it? We were told that Moseh “ya’al – was pleased to accept the invitation, willingly demonstrating that he was in complete agreement with this opportunity to begin anew.” He was “totally content to live with, establishing a home with this individual.”
Moseh was thrilled with his new life and new wife. His adoptive family could not have been more accommodating. He was a new father, living safe and secure from the hell he had left behind. He was not complaining, he was happy, so pleased with his home that, when Yahowah asked him to go back to the place from which he had come, he said, “No.”
With Moseh content to live out the rest of his life with his adoptive family, what is the alternative? Why is he introducing Yah’s Nakry at this time and place?
As before, we can move on past this reference and consider what Yahowah reveals next, which is the suffering of His people. Or we can linger here and ponder the prophetic implications.
Yah’s Nakry, while not unique among men, is special 38to Yahowah and important to His people. He is an implement chosen by Yahowah to convey His message to Yisra’el, serving as a voice who calls out to God’s People, inviting them to come home at a time when their own voice has gone silent.
To appreciate this prophecy regarding the purpose of Yah’s Nakry we must jump ahead to the conclusion of the initial Exodus. The Children of Yisra’el were settled in the Promised Land, with the recently constructed Home of the Covenant being dedicated in their presence. It was then that Shalomoh | Reconciliation | Solomon, Dowd’s son, revealed something which should be reverberating around the world, something which should be considered by Jew and Gentile alike. God promised to provide someone who would show the way to the benefits of the relationship, who as a witness would provide answers regarding Yahowah’s shem | name, yad | hand, chazaq | impassioned leader, and zarowa’ | protective shepherd and sacrificial lamb.
Using this individual, God would help interested parties reconcile their relationship through evidence and reason, becoming part of His beyth | Family. Our Heavenly Father expressly qara’ | invited us to read what this lama’an | witness, His nakry | observant foreigner, would come to yada’ | know and understand by translating and contemplating His testimony. We were even encouraged to ‘asah | act upon this individual’s conclusions, which means that he will be right about God, correctly presenting what Yahowah is offering and expects in return of those who desire to be part of His beyth | Family. In a world of believers, of those who have gone astray, awash in many vile voices, Yahowah is offering an opportunity to yada’ | know Him.
Upon the completion and commemoration of Yahowah’s beyth | Family Home, which was the seminal moment in the life of a united Yisra’el, standing atop Mount Mowryah | Moriah with the recently completed 39Temple gleaming in the background, the man noted for his wisdom delivered the original “Sermon on the Mount.”
He was dedicating the building Yahowah had designed to showcase the Ark of the Covenant, the Tablets of Stone, and the original scroll of the Towrah Moseh had scribed in the very place Yah’s Nakry was introduced. With Ya’aqob’s descendants gathered before him, and speaking of the promises Yahowah had made to his father, Dowd | David, while desirous of guiding his people’s footsteps, Solomon used “nakry – a discerning foreigner from a distant place and time speaking a different language, who, as a result of being observant, would come to understand” to tell the Children of Yisra’el and others how they should respond to the words this individual would write on their behalf. The timing strongly suggests that his translations and conclusions would become especially relevant to those being called out of Babylon prior to Yahowah’s return – the Second Exodus and God’s Final Solution.
After describing the importance of the Ark of the Covenant which had been placed in the center of Yah’s Home, Solomon reiterated many of the wonderful things which would benefit Yisra’el if the people continued to love Yahowah, sing his father’s songs, and observe the Towrah’s | Guidance. But knowing they would not, realizing that their descendants would require an exodus of their own, Solomon conveyed the following…
“Therefore (wa gam – what’s more, and in addition), regarding someone else, an observant and discerning foreigner from a different ethnicity and geographic location who will come to understand (ha nakry – the Nakry, someone from a different place and culture, speaking a different language, who, having paid attention, will comprehend; from nakar – someone who, by being attentive and astute, will come to be acquainted, recognize, and acknowledge something which deserves our highest regard and respect), who, to show the way to the benefits 40of the relationship (‘asher – who, to reveal the correct and restrictive path to walk to get the most out of life), is not of your people (lo’ min ‘am ‘atah), this Yisra’el (Yisra’el huw’).
He will come (wa bow’ – he will arrive and enter the scene) from a distant country in a distant time (min ‘erets rachowq – out of a land far from Yisra’el and following a long interval of time (explaining why ‘erets was associated with Yah’s Nakry when introduced by Moseh)) for the express purpose of being a reliable witness and providing truthful answers regarding (lama’an – for the sake of responding and replying, providing testimony, as a witness with the express intent and purpose of revealing; from ‘aman – to be trustworthy and reliable, even verifiable, regarding) Your (‘atah – ‘y’our would be Yahuwdah – Yahowah’s beloved while ‘Y’our would be Yahowah’s) surprisingly important (ha gadowl – tremendously empowering and distinguished, growth-promoting and magnifying, astonishingly great) name (shem – personal and proper designation, renown, and reputation), the influence of Your hand (wa yad ‘atah – Your ability to accomplish the mission, especially Your Yowd, the first letter in Your name which as an open hand reaching down and out defines Your role in our lives, denoting Your ability to engage and accomplish the task at hand (also serving as a reference to Dowd, Yah’s Right Hand)), along with the powerful and passionate ruler who is prepared to lead (ha chazaq – the very strong and influential individual with a fighting spirit who is ready and able to protect his people from those who would otherwise seek to harm them, the one who is intensely prepared and resolutely capable of encouraging, repairing, and defending his extended family, the one who embodies the right character, appropriate status, and speaking ability to govern appropriately with a firm and strong hand who clearly knows how to lead in the proper direction (speaking again of his father, Dowd | David)), and (wa) the 41protective and productive ram who shepherds the flock (zarowa’ huw’ – the prevailing and effective nature, the strength, resolve, and overall ability of this remarkably important and impactful individual of action who, as a leader and fighter is engaged as a shepherd among his sheep, who is fruitful in his ways, accomplishing the mission, especially when sowing the seeds of truth while denoting and advancing the purpose of the arm of God, of His shepherd and sacrificial lamb (yet again addressing his father Dowd | David)) whom You have reached out and will extend (‘atah ha natah – through whom You have stretched out).
When (wa) he arrives on the scene and chooses to pursue this (bow’ – when he (speaking of the nakry) comes, bringing and bearing these associations, wanting to clarify the proper direction toward the ultimate goal which is to enter back into the relationship and be included within the family (qal perfect consecutive – literally and genuinely, during this moment in time, and of his own volition)), then (wa) he will help interested parties reconcile their relationship by providing those who exercise good judgment with the information and justifications needed to make a correct and reasoned decision (palal – he (the nakry) will intervene in the relationship by providing an accurate assessment of the evidence, enabling thoughtful individuals to come to an agreement, and by foreseeing future events he will provide persuasive arguments which are assured to deliver the expected results) regarding this familial relationship (‘el ha beyth ha zeh – pertaining to and concerning God’s home and family (bringing Yisra’el back home, back to the Temple in Yaruwshalaim)). (Dabarym ha Yowmym / Words of the Days / 2nd Chronicles 6:32)
When you hear this out of the heavens, coming from the atmosphere (wa ‘atah shama’ min ha shamaym – when you listen to what comes out of the spiritual realm 42by way of the sky (perhaps prophetic of radio waves and especially satellite-based broadband internet connections now archived in the cloud under Yada Yahowah)) within the location where you live (min makown yashab ‘atah – within the place you are located and dwell), then (wa) engage and act accordingly, doing everything (‘asah ka kol – under the auspices of freewill, endeavor to expend the considerable effort required to receive all the benefits, doing everything consistent with the example and pattern he has set (qal perfect consecutive)) which, to show the way (‘asher – that, to reveal the proper path to get the most out of life and receive the benefits associated with the relationship), the observant foreigner from a different ethnicity and geographic location who understands (ha nakry – the Nakry, this man from a different place and culture, speaking a different language, who is uniquely discerning) has invited you to read (qara’ ‘el ‘atah – has proclaimed and offered to you about God, has recited to you, summoning you to it, calling you out to meet with and be welcomed by God (qal imperfect – literally with unfolding consequences)), for the express purpose of being a witness who provides answers such that (lama’an – for the sake of responding, providing testimony, with the express intent and purpose of revelation so that) every person on the Earth (kol ‘am ha ‘erets – everyone, every family and nation of the material realm) will have a genuine and ongoing opportunity to become familiar with, to know, acknowledge, accept, and understand (yada’ – will be shown by Yada’ so that they might appreciate and comprehend (qal imperfect – genuinely and actually on an ongoing basis)) Your name (‘eth shem ‘atah – that which is associated with Your proper designation and actual reputation), coming to respect and revere You (wa la yare’ ‘eth ‘atah – once revitalized, will approach Your awesome nature) simultaneously along with (ka – concurrently with) Your people (‘am ‘atah), Yisra’el (Yisra’el – Individuals who 43Struggle and Wrestle or Engage and Endure with God).
And also so that (wa la) they may know (yada’ – they might acknowledge, accept, and understand) that truthfully (ky – assuredly) Your family and this house (‘al ha beyth ha zeh – that Your home), which to reveal the correct path to walk to give life meaning that (‘asher – to show the way to benefit from the relationship) I have built for the family (banah – I [Shalomoh] have constructed for the generations, for the son and the son’s son) who are designated and called (qara’ – is summoned and received, proclaimed and appointed, and especially called out and welcomed) by Your name (shem ‘atah – by Your proper designation, Your reputation and renown (Yahuwdah – Yahowah’s Beloved)).” (Dabarym ha Yowmym / Words of the Days / 2nd Chronicles 6:33)
With Solomon’s speech still reverberating in our minds, it became obvious that his Sermon on the Mount drew inspiration from Yahowah’s presentation of the Shabat of the Exodus – and that he had referenced Yah’s presentation for a reason. These four words appear, one after the other, in both statements: chazaq, yad, zarowa’, and natah. It was not by accident.
“So (wa), you should remember (zakar – call to mind, recollect, mention, and proclaim (qal perfect)) that, indeed (ky), you were (hayah – you existed as (qal perfect)) a slave (‘ebed – a servant owned by another) in the land (ba ‘erets – in the realm and country) of the Crucibles of Oppression (Mitsraym – the cauldrons of religious and governmental oppression, military and economic subjugation, the coercions and cruelty experienced in Egypt where the people were confined and restricted by religious and political institutions; plural of matsowr – to be delineated as a foe and besieged during a time of testing and tribulation, from tsuwr – to be bound and confined by an adversary, besieged, assaulted, shut up, and enclosed in a concentration camp by those showing 44great hostility, and metsar – to be aware of a state of troubling hardship during imposition of anguishing distress), and (wa – then) Yahowah (Yahowah – the proper pronunciation of the name of ‘elowah – God as directed in His towrah – teaching regarding His hayah existence and our shalowm – restoration), your God (‘elohy ‘atah), brought you out (yatsa’ ‘atah – descended and extended Himself, came forth to lead and deliver you, taking you (hifil imperfect) from there (min sham | shem – out of and away from that place called by this name and having that reputation) with (ba – by and in) a mighty and firm, powerful and protective (chazaq – very strong and influential, extraordinarily capable and intensely prepared, resolutely passionate and encouraging, assertive and aggressive, feisty and steadfast) hand (yad – ability to accomplish the mission, a Yowd – the first letter in Yah’s name which as an open hand reaching down and out, defining Yah’s role in our lives, denoting His ability to engage and accomplish the task at hand), and with (wa ba) the sacrificial lamb, the productive arm shepherding the flock (zarowa’ – the prevailing and effective nature, the strength, resolve, and overall ability of this remarkably important and impactful individual of action who, as a leader and fighter is engaged as a shepherd among his sheep, who is fruitful in his ways, accomplishing the mission, especially when sowing the seeds of truth while denoting and advancing the purpose of the arm of God, of His shepherd and sacrificial lamb) extended (natah – reaching out and outstretched).
For this reason (‘al ken – upon these grounds above all others, it is right, therefore, that), Yahowah (Yahowah – an accurate transliteration of the name of ‘elowah – God guided by His towrah – instructions regarding His hayah – existence and our shalowm – reconciliation), your God (‘elohy ‘atah), instructed you (tsawah ‘atah – directed you, appointing, constituting, decreeing, and ordaining for you (piel perfect)) to approach by observing (la shamar 45– to move toward and draw near, by closely examining and carefully considering (qal infinitive construct – a literal descriptive verb and genuine actionable noun) [from 1QDeut]) that which is associated with the time (‘eth yowm) to celebrate the Shabat (ha shabat – to observe the seventh day, the period of reflection at the end of the week, reminiscent of the promise of settling debts so we can settle down by considering the oath of association; from shaba’ – fulfilling and satisfying the promise of seven to abundantly empower and enrich) such that it is set apart and special (‘eth qodesh – so that it is uncommon, cleansing, and perfecting [from 1QDeut]).” (Dabarym / Words / Deuteronomy 5:15)
As we consider the implications of these statements, one from Solomon and two from Moseh, we are approaching the ultimate celebration of Shabat. Surviving Yisra’elites will soon be coming home to participate in Yowm Kipurym | the Day of Reconciliations in the Yowbel Year of 6000 Yah (at sunset on October 2nd, 2033).
While the current Greek rendition of Revelation is suspect, the sections of it which emerge from the Prophets, notably the Mizmowr, Zakaryah, Dany’el, Yachezq’el, Yasha’yah, Yirma’yah, and Mal’aky, can be reassuring and enlightening. Such an example may be the two witnesses, of whom only ‘Elyah is named. If they remain active for 1260 days followed by 3.5 days as foretold, ascending to Heaven on Yowm Kipurym, then 1264 days earlier, Elijah will be arriving just in time to celebrate Passover on Wednesday, April 17, 2030.
Sukah’s Shabat follows the Time of Ya’aqob’s Troubles when Yisra’el will once again endure the sting of Crucibles of Religious and Political Oppression. Therefore, for Yahowah to fulfill His promise to reconcile His relationship with His people, there must be another exodus, this one away from the cauldrons of political, religious, and geographic Babylon: the United States of America, the 46Roman Catholic Church, and the lands now infected by Islam. There is precious little time left to bring Yisra’el and Yahuwdah back home, back to the Promised Land.
Sadly, there was not a single willing Yahuwd through whom Yahowah could convey this message, which means that there would be no prophet or shepherd for His people at this time as there was with Moseh and Dowd. But there would, nonetheless, be a witness, a Nakry, who would write what those seeking to be with Yahowah would need to qara’ | read and yada’ | know. He would translate Yahowah’s Testimony, and that of Moseh and Dowd, the words of the actual Hebrew prophets and shepherds into English – the language spoken by more people today, including “Jews,” than any other.
Time is growing short for another observant foreigner to emerge and compile the requisite translations and insights, although we ought to consider every possibility. At the same time, we should ponder why Yahowah made this prophetic announcement regarding the nakry at the commencement and conclusion of the Exodus and then seek to appreciate why Solomon included part of the Dabarym presentation on the Shabat celebrating the Exodus in his prophetic declaration.
If they were addressing this time and these translations, then we are in the right place. And if not, if we should have bypassed these insights and skipped ahead to Yahowah’s next line, we were enriched by what God’s prophets had to say. There is never anything wrong with learning from Yahowah’s Teaching or responding to His Guidance. And isn’t it Yahowah’s intent for us to see our lives shaped by His words such that we envision ourselves in them?
47As is the case with every political despot and arrogant religious leader, even in the best of times…
“During those abundantly wonderful days (ba ha yowmym rab ha hem – in these times of great importance), it was then that the king (wa melek – and so the ruler) of Mitsraym | the Crucibles of Oppression (Mitsraym – the cauldrons of religious and governmental, military and economic subjugation, the coercions and cruelty experienced in Egypt where the people were confined and restricted by religious and political institutions; plural of matsowr – to be delineated as a foe and besieged during a time of testing and tribulation, from tsuwr – to be bound and confined by an adversary, besieged, assaulted, shut up, and enclosed in a concentration camp by those showing great hostility, and metsar – to be aware of a state of troubling hardship during the imposition of anguishing distress) died (muwth).
And yet (wa) the Children of Yisra’el (Beny Yisra’el – the Offspring who Engage and Endure with God) continued to groan (‘anach – expressed the sighs of physical and emotional pain) from (min – as a result of) the work (ha ‘abodah – the labor, servitude, and slavery).
They cried out in agony for help (za’aq – they summoned assistance, together, of one accord, weeping bitterly, emotionally and physically anguished, while calling out hoping to be released).
They rose up (hem ‘alah – lifted up their voices in anticipation of being lifted up and withdrawn) calling out for assistance (shaw’ah – desperate to be rescued) unto (‘el) the Mighty One (ha ‘elohym) because of (min – out of) their labor (‘abodah – work, servitude, and slavery).” (Shemowth / Names / Exodus 2:23)
It would take 400 years for Yisra’el to reach the point 48that they would collectively plead for help. They had been enslaved three times longer than Africans in the American South, and their situation had been far worse. Perhaps equivalent to the Holocaust toward the end, with Jews being starved and tortured, worked to death and murdered, four hundred years of Egyptian servitude would grossly exceed the torment of fourteen years of slavery under the Germans. It was the longest and worst experience endured by anyone, ever – so horrific, it would require God’s intervention.
These next four short sentences convey Yahowah’s nature and intent. Counter to the Christian myth, God can be relied upon to honor His promises.
“God heard (wa shama’ ‘elohym – the Almighty listened to) their groaning (na’aqah hem – the guttural sounds of their pain and suffering).
And God (wa ‘elohym – the Almighty) remembered (zakar – recalled, then responded appropriately to the memory and proclamation of) His Covenant (beryth huw’ – His Family-Oriented Relationship Agreement) with (‘eth) ‘Abraham (‘Abraham – Merciful Father of the abundantly enriched), with (‘eth) Yitschaq (Yitschaq – I Laugh, transliterated Isaac), and with (wa ‘eth) Ya’aqob (Ya’aqob – My Footsteps, I grab the heel, transliterated Jacob; from y – I and ‘aqab – to receive the reward and suffer the consequences of circumventing or overreaching, digging in or supplanting one’s heels, sometimes walking in a sly and accusatory manner). 2:24)
God saw (wa ra’ah ‘elohym – so the Almighty witnessed) the Children of Yisra’el (Beny Yisra’el – the Son who Engage and Endure with God), and the Almighty (wa ‘elohym) recognized, acknowledged, respected, and understood them (yada’ – relationally knew and was familiar and acquainted with).” (Shemowth / Names / Exodus 2:25)
49Mankind has behaved badly ever since the first communities, raiding parties, cultures, religions, and governments were formed. In all of that time, Yahowah has only intervened twice to thwart their advance. The first was during the Flood. The second during the Exodus. The third and final time will be at the conclusion of the Time of Ya’aqob’s Troubles prior to His return.
In that they represented the Covenant, even with the inclusion of Noach’s family, each time God engaged, it has been and will be to protect His people. He did this for Yisra’el because He had made an unwavering commitment to ‘Abraham, to Yitschaq, and to Ya’aqob.
This statement is not only a harbinger of what is to come, in that Yahowah will engage again to protect Yisra’el, it is a broadside against Christianity. God has not made any such promises to them and will annihilate most gowym | non-Yisra’elites rather than protect them upon His return.
As was the case with Dowd | David, the temperament and experience of a shepherd are appealing to Yahowah. Both men were tending sheep when God first met with them.
“Moseh was (wa Moseh hayah – the One who Draws Out existed) shepherding (ra’ah –leading, protecting, guiding, and nourishing) the flock (‘eth tso’n – the sheep) of his father-in-law (chothen huw’), Yithrow (Yithrow – the Remnant; from yathar – to remain), the Midyan priest (kohen Midyn – the one who ministers to the Contentious).
He led (nahag – he guided) his sheep (ha tso’n huw’ – his flock) to the end (‘achar – the conclusion of spacetime, the last and hindermost part) of the desert wilderness (ha midbar – barren wasteland where the word is questioned; from my – to ponder the implications and dabar – the word which is spoken) and came to (bow’ ‘el – arrived at) Choreb (Horeb – knife’s edge, a sharp sword 50which cuts and separates in the driest of deserts), the mountain (har) of the Almighty (ha ‘elohym).” (Shemowth / Names / Exodus 3:1)
Just as mankind will soon return to ‘Eden, Moseh would come back to this place to receive the Towrah. Mount Choreb is both the place where Yahowah introduced Himself to Moseh, and where God met with Yisra’el. This dry, desolate place with its summit piercing the sky with its knife-edge is located 20 miles east of the eastern shore of the Gulf of Aqaba. (Should you want to look it up, the coordinates are 28 35 43.7 N, 35 20 7.3 E.)
“And the Spiritual Messenger (wa mal’ak – the heavenly envoy, representative, and ambassador) of Yahowah (Yahowah – the proper pronunciation of YaHoWaH, our ‘elowah – God as directed in His ToWRaH – teaching regarding His HaYaH – existence and our ShaLoWM – restoration) appeared (ra’ah – became visible and was shown) to him (‘el huw’) by means of (ba – in and with) flaming (labah – a spear of burning, the sharpened tip of a point of; from lahab – a gleaming blade of a sword of) fire (‘esh – radiant heat and light) from the midst (min tawek – out of the center or middle) of the rocky crag (seneh – a high and shimmering rocky cliff).
He looked (ra’ah – he was observant) and beheld (hineh – paid close attention, noticing) that the rocky summit (ha seneh – the high and sharp crag) was ablaze (ba’ar – kindled and illuminated) with the fire (ba ha ‘esh – with the blazing light) but the crag (wa ha seneh – the high cliff of the shimmering rocky place) was not consumed (‘ayn huw’ ‘akal – it was not eaten away or destroyed).” (Shemowth / Names / Exodus 3:2)
Sanah, “thorny shrub or prickly bush,” and seneh, “high rocky place and elevated and shining crag or cliff,” are indistinguishable in the Hebrew text. However, like many who have searched maps of the land of Midian and 51have examined pictures taken in the region, I have seen the burnt rocky heights of Mount Choreb. And since this is the Mountain of God and Yahowah is the “Rock of our Salvation,” I would opt for “shimmering high rocky crag” over “thorny bush.”
Moreover, the spectacle was enormously massive, extensive, intense, and elevated. This perspective makes a crag a more reasonable venue than a shrub.
“Moseh said (wa Moseh ‘amar), ‘I want to (na’ – it is my desire to urgently) change direction and go (suwr – alter my orientation and take off toward) to witness (wa ra’ah – to see and consider, observing) this phenomenally massive sight (‘eth ha mar’eth – this enormous spectacle; from mah – to question the implications of ra’ah – that which can be seen, inspected, and considered) which is so massive, extensive, important, and intense (ha gadowl ha zeh – which is so powerful, great, elevated, and majestic; from gadal – growing, magnifying, empowering, vital, and magnificent).
Why is (maduwa’ – what is the reason) there nothing to burn (lo’ ba’ar – there no cause for a fire and nothing to consume) on the high, shimmering, rocky crag (ha seneh)?’” (Shemowth / Names / Exodus 3:3)
The enormity and magnitude of this majestic spectacle of blazing light atop the jagged summit of Mount Choreb were so impressive, Moseh turned to take it all in. It was something so magnificent, he was eager to make sense of it all.
“When (wa) Yahowah (Yahowah – God’s name transliterated as guided by His towrah – instructions on His hayah – existence and His role in our shalowm – reconciliation as ‘elowah – Almighty God) saw (ra’ah – noticed) that indeed (ky) he changed direction to draw near and see (suwr la ra’ah – he altered his orientation to take off toward and approach what he was witnessing), 52God called out to him, inviting him to meet with Him (wa qara’ ‘el huw’ ‘elohym – the Almighty summoned him to welcome him) from (min – out of) the midst (tawek – middle or center) of the rocky heights (seneh – the high and shimmering crag).
He said (wa ‘amar – He announced and proclaimed), ‘Moseh, Moseh (Mosheh Mosheh – one who was drawn out and will draw out; from mashah – to draw out)!’
And so he responded and said (‘amar – he answered), ‘Look now and see, here I am (hineh ‘any – behold and notice me).’” (Shemowth / Names / Exodus 3:4)
Qara’ is the verb which explains Miqra’, and in the plural, Miqra’ey | Invitations to be Called Out and Meet, being Welcomed by God. It is the first word Yahowah spoke to Moseh. It would define his mission and their relationship. It describes the path we can walk to follow them home.
Moseh was slow of speech, not deaf, so there is a reason Yahowah repeated his name. It is my contention that it was done so as to explain how he had come to be here and what he was about to undertake.
Hineh is usually translated as “behold.” It means “to look up, pay close attention, and take note of the details being presented in the here and now.” Moseh used it to draw attention to himself since hineh was followed by ‘any | me.
While God can manifest Himself in any form He chooses, light, which is timeless, illuminating, and the purest form of energy, is His favorite. However, we mortals can only come so close to this much energy without the source of life becoming too intense. Such may have been the case here. I say “may” because there are different ways to translate the Hebrew letters Aleph-Lamed (אַל). They can convey ‘el | God, ‘el | power, ‘el | to or toward, or ‘al | not, 53nothing, or none.
So it is either: “And he/He said (wa ‘amar) do not (‘al – do not be negated, reduced to nothing by the intensity of the powerful physical force and) come near (qarab – approach by getting closer to) this place (halom – in proximity to here)…”
Or: “Then (wa) God (‘el – the Almighty) said (‘amar), ‘Approach and draw near (qarab – be present next to) this place (halom – in close proximity)…”
The first rendition, while consistent with almost all English translations, does not work in this context because the last speaker was Moseh, and this is clearly God speaking to him. Therefore, ‘el reveals the change of voice from man to God.
Moreover, in His last statement, “wa qara’ ‘el huw’ ‘elohym – God called out to him, inviting him to meet with Him.” The Almighty was summoning Moseh into His presence and welcoming him. Qarab not only means “to approach and draw near,” it is something Yahowah asks of us during the celebration of the Miqra’ey. Additionally, halom speaks of “being in close proximity.”
Further, not only would it have been inconsistent with Yahowah’s purpose to send Moseh away since His intent was to spend eternity with him, Moseh would spend 40 days and nights with Yahowah on Mount Choreb upon his return to this place. God was there to introduce Himself and meet with Moseh. They were about to become inseparable.
And then there is the issue with the “na’al – sandals.” Why take them off if he was being sent away? How would the ground away from God be special?
Even if we were intent on leaving Aleph-Lamed as ‘al rather than ‘el, God could have been saying that in spite of the evidence to the contrary, “you will not be negated and thus reduced to nothing by the intensity of this powerful 54force” by approaching.
All things considered, I think this is correct…
“Then (wa) God, Almighty (‘el) said (‘amar), ‘Approach and draw near (qarab – be present next to) this place (halom – in close proximity).
Take off (nashal – slip off and remove, loosen and detach) your (‘atah) sandals (na’al – shoes) from upon (min ‘al) your feet (regel ‘atah) because (ky – for the reason that truly) this place (ha maqowm – this home, dwelling, office, and source of direction in life; from ma – to ponder the implications of quwm – rising up and taking a stand, being upright and empowered, to be established and confirmed) which, to show the benefits of the relationship (‘asher – which, to reveal the correct path to get the most out of life), you are standing (‘amad – present, remaining and enduring) upon (‘al), it is set-apart and special (huw’ qodesh – it is separated from that which is common and ordinary, unlike that which is corrupted by humanity) ground (‘adamah – soil, earth, and land).’” (Shemowth / Names / Exodus 3:5)
Yahowah wants us to approach Him and to be comfortable around Him. So God said, “slip off your sandals from your feet for truly, this place is home.” Moreover, on this rocky mountain, without shoes, Moseh wasn’t going to run away.
Mount Choreb, the Mountain of God, was chosen because it had not been contaminated by men. It was still special and set apart, and could serve as Yahowah’s “maqowm – office, the place where He would provide direction for life.” And that instruction would include being “quwm – upright” in His presence, not bowed down, while ready and willing to “quwm – take a stand” against that which is common and corrupt.
Everything important to God and essential for us is 55“qodesh – set apart.” If something is ordinary or popular it is not of God.
“He said (wa ‘amar – He continued by communicating), ‘I am (‘any) the God (‘elohym) of your father (‘ab ‘atah), the God of ‘Abraham (‘elohym ‘Abraham), the God of Yitschaq (‘elohym Yitschaq), and God of Ya’aqob (wa ‘elohym Ya’aqob).’”
Yahowah did not say that He was the God of Roman Catholics or Gentile Christians. He was not the God of the Americans, the French, Germans, English, or Chinese. He is the God of the Covenant with Yisra’el.
Yahowah could have simply stated, “‘any ‘elohym – I am God” and left it at that. But He didn’t. It is, therefore, essential that we recognize this fact and accept the implications. The beneficiaries of the Covenant with ‘Abraham and the descendants of Ya’aqob who became Yisra’el, matter most to Yahowah. They are His people. And that is why He was in this place meeting with Moseh – a Yisra’elite from the tribe of Lowy.
All of this must have been a bit overwhelming…
“But (wa) Moseh (Mosheh – One who Draws Out) concealed (sathar – hid) his face (paneh huw’ – his presence), because (ky) he was awestruck (yare’ – he was respectful and a bit too intimidated) from (min – as a result of) looking at (nabat ‘el – gazing upon, having such high regard for, and caring about) the Almighty (ha ‘elohym – the Mighty One).” (Shemowth / Names / Exodus 3:6)
If the entire rocky height of this barren mountain was ablaze in brilliant light, it would be nigh on impossible to stare directly into the face of God. Moreover, Moseh was not afraid, but instead being respectful. He held God in very high regard.
In His office on Mount Choreb, Yahowah got down to business. He laid it on the line, telling Moseh what he 56already knew.
“Then (wa) Yahowah (Yahowah – a transliteration of , our ‘elowah – God as directed in His towrah – teaching regarding His hayah – existence) said (‘amar – expressed by conveying), ‘I have witnessed and surely seen (ra’ah ra’ah – I have observed and perceived, inspected and understand) the oppression and persecution (‘ony – affliction and suffering, the harassment, poverty, misery, and humiliation) of My people (‘am ‘any – people) who are in (‘asher ba – who need to be led along the correct path to the benefits of relationship) the Crucibles of Oppression (Mitsraym – the cauldrons of religious and governmental, military and economic subjugation, the coercions and cruelty experienced in Egypt where the people were confined and restricted by religious and political persecution; plural of matsowr – to be delineated as a foe and besieged during a time of testing and tribulation, from tsuwr – to be bound and confined by an adversary, besieged, assaulted, shut up, and enclosed in a concentration camp by those showing great hostility, and metsar – to be aware of a state of troubling hardship and persecution during imposition of anguishing distress).
And I have heard (wa shama’) their cry of distress (tse’aqah huw’ – their painful, despairing, and sorrowful wailing, even the summons they are screaming) because of (min) the presence (paneh) of their oppressive taskmasters who are exploiting them (nagas hem – the tyrannical rulers who are manipulating and cruelly abusing them).
Indeed (ky), I recognize and personally know (yada’ ‘eth – I am aware of, acknowledge, and I am familiar with) their pain and suffering (mak’ob hem – their sorrow and grief, their emotional and mental anguish and physical pain).” (Shemowth / Names / Exodus 3:7)
57And now we know why Yahowah chose Moseh. He was the only man on the planet who had witnessed what Yahowah had seen and agreed with God’s assessment. There would be a lot that Yahowah would have to teach Moseh for him to prevail, but there was one subject in which their abhorrence was shared.
Yahowah despises religion and politics because they are the principal source of man’s propensity to “‘ony – oppress and persecute” others, “afflicting them and causing many to suffer.” Man impoverishes while God seeks to enrich. With man there is misery, and with God, mercy.
Yahowah was rolling out some of the most telling words in the Hebrew vocabulary to convey His dismay with the consequence of human “oppression and persecution.” He does not want His people to be victimized.
God is aware of the pain and anguish His people were suffering because He would take it all upon Himself and endure the consequence. He experienced the worst man could inflict during Passover. And then He took the most horrid aspects of religious and political affliction and persecution with Him into She’owl to remove this fungus from our souls on UnYeasted Bread.
“So (wa) I have descended (yarad – I have come down and have diminished this aspect of Myself) to deliver them (la natsal hem – to defend and spare them, rescuing and saving them by snatching them away) from (min) the influence (yad – the hand, power, and control) of Mitsraym | the Crucibles of Political and Religious Oppression (Mitsraym – the cauldrons of persecution and cruelty in Egypt where people are confined and restricted by religious and political institutions; plural of matsowr – to be delineated as a foe and besieged during a time of testing and tribulation, from tsuwr – to be bound and confined by an adversary, besieged, assaulted, shut up, and 58enclosed in a concentration camp by those showing great hostility), and to lift them out of (wa la ‘alah hem min – to carry them away from) that land (ha ‘erets hy’ – that realm and nation) to (‘el) a good (towb – prosperous and beautiful, pleasing and agreeable, productive and beneficial) Land (‘erets – realm), a spacious land (rachab ‘el ‘erets – roomy and agreeable place) flowing with (zuwb – abundant in) milk (chalab) and honey (wa dabash), to the place (‘el maqowm) of the Canaanite (ha Kana’any – those who will be subdued), the Hittite (wa ha Chity – the shattered and broken), the Perizzite (wa ha Parizy – the overly open), the Amorites (wa ha ‘Emory – the boastful), the Hivite (wa ha Chiwy – the declarative), and the Yabuwsy (wa ha Yebuwsy – the rejected and tread upon).” (Shemowth / Names / Exodus 3:8)
It was to be a rescue mission. Yahowah was motivated and committed to lifting His people out of man’s oppressive religious and political influence. Moreover, God was offering to take them to a very good place.
What follows is repeated thrice. A rescue, no matter how grand, is irrelevant until and unless the beneficiary understands his or her plight. God’s point is that human political and religious schemes are predicated upon placing burdens on their subjects. They are works-based, making them oppressive and suppressive. Yahowah’s solution, which is liberating, uplifting, and free, is the antithesis of man’s program.
“And so now at this time (wa ‘atah), it is My desire that you choose to go, electing to walk as an expression of My will (halak – let’s go (qal imperative paragogic cohortative – genuinely travel within the relationship of your own volition, while also emphatically expressing My desire)).
I will send you out (shalach ‘atah – I am dispatching and extending you, sending you off) to Pharaoh (‘el 59Phar’oah) to bring out (yatsa’) My people (‘am ‘any – My family), the Children of Yisra’el (Beny Yisra’el – sons who engage and endure with God), from (min) the Crucibles of Oppression (Mitsraym – the cauldrons of religious and governmental, military and economic subjugation, the coercions and cruelty experienced in Egypt where the people were confined and restricted and persecuted).” (Shemowth / Names / Exodus 3:10)
In Hebrew, moods speak volumes. This is one of the rare occasions where a verb is subject to volition in the first and second person. The cohortative and imperative reveal that, while this mission was subject to freewill, meaning Moseh was being given a choice, not an order, it also conveyed the desire of God.
I can empathize with Moseh, because I have often asked the same question regarding my role in sharing what God revealed through His prophets, and through Moseh in particular.
“But (wa) Moseh (Mosheh) said to the Almighty (‘el ha ‘elohym), ‘Who (my) am I (‘anoky) that (ky) I should go (halak – I should walk) to (‘el) Pharaoh (Phar’oah) and actually (ky) bring out (yatsa’ – deliver) the Children of Yisra’el (‘eth Beny Yisra’el) from (min) the Crucible of Egypt (Mitsraym – religious and political oppression)?’” (Shemowth / Names / Exodus 3:11)
Based upon his birth and life, Moseh was the most qualified person to perform this mission (if you overlook the fact he was really old, had a speech impediment, and was an alleged murderer with a death sentence hanging over his head). Alone, he may have been inconsequential compared to the power and influence of Egypt. By himself, or even with the entire Midyan army, Moseh recognized that he was wholly inadequate. And it is this accurate self-assessment along with his appreciation for the plight of his people that made him an ideal implement.
60It is important for those reading Yada Yahowah to know that there were scholars and theologians better educated to perform this mission of more accurately and completely presenting Yahowah’s Word than I had been. But they were either not called to do so because they would have become self-reliant, or they chose not to engage because it would have been bad for their careers and standing in their religious and academic communities. I, on the other hand, said yes, so long as Yahowah promised to work with me and shield my family from the wrath this mission would surely engender. He has, and it has become the best decision I ever made. And in retrospect, while I was given the job per defaltam, I likely possessed some attributes Yahowah desired, and like Moseh, I had experienced and rejected religion and politics.
He made Moseh similar assurances, with the first installment recorded in this next statement…
“So then He responded (wa ‘amar – He promised), ‘Indeed (ky – be assured), I will be (‘ehayah – I was, I am, and I always will be (qal imperfect – actually and literally on an ongoing basis I exist)) with (‘im – alongside in an associated interactive relationship near) you (‘atah).” (Shemowth / Names / Exodus 3:12)
I cannot help but laugh. Even in this most telling of passages, Yahowah has inserted something I find funny, especially in light of my personal inadequacies. While the primary meaning of ‘im is as I have rendered it, “with, alongside, near, and in an associated interactive relationship,” it also means “in spite of,” which I take to mean: God will complete His mission in spite of Moseh’s failings…or mine. It is something I have long known, but it is nice to see it in writing, nonetheless.
Yahowah prefers to do things, even the big things, with us and through us, rather than alone. Sure, He could have blasted the Egyptians and then paved a yellow-brick 61road for His people to follow home. But instead, He went with Moseh.
Sure, God could have written His Word on an enormous tablet and held it in the sky. Or He could have deployed a mal’ak | spiritual implement to scribe a Word.doc on a universal hard drive, putting it on the internet for all to see. But that isn’t His style. In spite of us, He seems to enjoy our company. It is, after all, the reason we exist.
“And this (wa zeh) is your sign (la ‘atah ha ‘owth – for you is the signal and symbol, the illustration) that indeed (ky) I, Myself, have sent you (‘anoky shalach ‘atah – I, Myself have dispatched you, sending you out).
When (ba) you come out (yatsa’ ‘atah – you deliver, coming forth) with the people (‘eth ha ‘am) from (min – from) the Crucibles of Egyptian Oppression (Mitsraym), you will work with (‘abad ‘eth – you will labor on behalf of (qal imperfect paragogic nun – you will actually and literally with ongoing implications throughout time do the will of)) God (ha ‘elohym) upon (‘al) this specific mountain (ha har ha zeh).’” (Shemowth / Names / Exodus 3:12)
And that is precisely what happened. Moseh, with a considerable assist from God, led his people out of Egypt, directly across the Red Sea, into Arabia, and back to Mount Choreb. Having returned to this place, Moseh continued to work with Yahowah. Together they would reveal and share God’s Towrah | Teaching and Guidance.